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Waste classification: what are the special waste, what they are and how they are collected e disposal. All information about this category of waste.
The normative definition ofwaste, in Italy, is given by Article 183 of Legislative Decree of 3 April 2006 no. 152. The so-calledconsolidated text onwasteit was then modified by the legislative decree of 3 December 2010 n. 205, decree that transposed the European directive 2008/98. The normative definition ofwastedoes not distinguish betweenrecyclable wasteand not recyclable, nor the classification of waste.
To quote the legislation, waste is defined as:
"Any substance or object that the holder discards or intends or is obliged to discard".
Therefore, waste is not necessarily an object that has reached the end of its life cycle, simply an object or substance that the owner wants to get rid of. The normative definition is very broad and for this reason, the same law has provided for onewaste classification.
THEwastethey are classified according to their origin, danger and their physical state. We thus have three different oneswaste classification.
Waste classification based on origin:
- Urban waste
– Special waste
Waste classification based on hazard:
- Hazardous waste
- Non-hazardous waste
Classification of waste based on their physical state:
- Solid powder
- Solid non-powdery
- Muddy shovel
- Liquid waste
Even taken individually, each category ofwasterefers to a class of highly heterogeneous materials, objects and substances. With this premise, it is easy to understand that the class ofspecial wastecannot be considered more or less dangerous thanmunicipal waste.
Municipal waste: dioxin and leachate
TheMSW (Municipal solid waste), governed by Legislative Decree 152/06 art. 184 c. 2, spanning a large number ofwaste. The list is very dense and ranges from waste produced in the home to waste related to cemetery activities (waste from exhumation) of the urban environment. Municipal waste contains various inorganic salts and organic halogen compounds that contribute to the production of that toxic and highly carcinogenic substance such asdioxin. In addition, municipal solid waste contains so-calledleachable salts which can exceed 5 grams per kilogram of waste. These salts, even if of inorganic type, contribute to the formation of aggressive compounds ofleachate.
THEspecial wasteare governed by the same decree onwaste classificationbut from paragraph 3 (Legislative Decree 152/06, article 184, c. 3). L'list of special wasteit is equally dense and heterogeneous.
What are special waste?According to the legislation, they belong to the category ofspecial wasteall thewastelisted below:
- - Waste derived from agricultural and agro-industrial activities.
- - Waste produced by demolition and construction activities as well as all waste resulting from excavation activities, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 184 bis.
- - Waste produced by industrial processes.
- - Waste produced by craftsmanship.
- - Waste produced by commercial activities.
- - Waste produced by service activities.
- - Waste produced by recovery activities ewaste disposal.
To name examples: sludge produced by water purification. Wastes related to water treatment and wastewater purification, waste produced by smoke abatement activities.
- - Waste derived from healthcare activities.
THEspecial wastethey can, in turn, be classified into special hazardous waste and special non-hazardous waste.
What are the special hazardous waste
THEspecial hazardous wasteare those wastes that contain a high dose of pollutants. Collection edisposal of special hazardous wastehave the purpose of drastically reducing the danger. The old waste classification indicated ispecial hazardous wastewith the name ofharmful toxic waste. Old toxic waste, currently referred to as special hazardous waste, are:
- - Waste products from petroleum refining
- - Waste products from industrial chemical processes
- - Waste products from the photographic industry (old films)
- - Used oils
- - Waste products derived from metallurgical activity
- - Solvents
- - Waste derived from wastewater treatment plants
- - Wastes derived from medical and veterinary activities
- - Wastes from tanning and textile production